Prior to our Otter Spotter community science effort beginning in 2012, river otters were not known to inhabit the SF Bay Area. By becoming a member, you'll help the Zoo save species and get great benefits for you and your family each time you visit! It represents our guide to managing otter populations in Pennsylvania for the next 10 years. Science of The Total Environment, 408(3), pp.537-542 . They hunt singly or in pairs and although otters generally forage in water, they are equally at home on land, sometimes traveling between 10 and 18 miles (16 and 29 kilometers) in search of food. The Otter Project > about sea otters > biology of the southern sea otter biology of the southern sea otter . They occur at much higher densities in regions of the Great Lakes, in brackish marshes and inlets, and in other coastal habitats than farther inland. The otter’s fur is thick but fine, lustrous deep brown to almost black in color, with the exception of the chin and throat which are lighter. They have prominent whiskers just behind and below the nose, thick muscular necks and shoulders, and feet that are webbed between the toes. The majority of the animals in our study area shared space with at least 1 other animal at the core-area scale, and animals tended to be attracted to each other and were frequently located m close proximity to other otters. Males have been recorded to travel up to 10 miles (16 km) in 1 night. Fertilization is internal with the otters meaning the male releases the sperm inside the female. Answers: 3 on a question: River otters drink about 5 times as much water as a bald eagle drinks in a day. As prey, otters provide a great source of nutrients to animals that hunt them for food. The North American river otter (Lontra canadensis), also called the Canadian otter, is the most abundant species of otter.They are found throughout most of North America – from the Rio Grande in Northern Mexico to Canada and Alaska. The playful North American river otter is equally at home in the water and on land. Lutra canadensis Status . Increases in the range and numbers of river otters in response to the return of beaver has been dramatic, particularly in the southeastern United States. This work is supported by New Technologies for Agriculture Extension grant no. and are the smallest marine mammal in North America. The reproductive biology of river otters and all other weasels is complex because of a characteristic known as delayed implantation. Natal dens tend to be located on small headwater branches or streams leading to major drainages or lakes. It also serves as an information and education resource for Find resources to engage learners in grades preK-12 with science, the natural world, wildlife and conservation. They spend a significant portion of the day scent marking territory by urinating, defecating, scratching and rubbing their scent glands on rocks and trees. They devour fish and other prey, keeping ecosystems balanced. In some provinces and states, major otter re-introduction projects are underway with much success. different regions. Biology of the North American river otter Adult river otters weigh between 15 and 30 pounds and measure 84.34 cm (2.8 feet) to 137.16 cm (4.5 feet).1,2 Otters have adapted to their aquatic environment by de-veloping dense fur, large lungs, and webbed hind feet. They also receive mice, carrots, hard-boiled eggs, clams, crayfish, dry kibble, crickets and live fish for variety and enrichment. Regionally extinct throughout the Midwest and heavily populated areas in the east, several states have recently begun reintroduction programs. Our first goal for The River Otter Ecology Project was to convene a broadly-based group of experts in conservation, population biology, marine mammals, tracking and genomics to help guide our research. Are you a hunter? Upon learning there was a need for volunteers with River Otter Ecology Project, I saw a chance to learn about the North American River Otter; not only to help chart the return of another otter species, but also, hopefully, help to prevent a recurrence of what I had observed all those years ago. They live in riparian zones, often in the same areas as beavers. Their sex can be readily distinguished by the presence of a baculum (penile bone). We receive no government funding, and depend solely on financial support from our friends. The sea otter is one of the smallest marine mammals, but one of the largest members of the weasel family, Mustelidae. Adirondack Mammals. Like other carnivores, their teeth are well adapted for grinding and crushing. 1999). How much water can a river otter drink in three days? Research based wildlife control information, River Otters | River Otter Overview | River Otter Damage Assessment | River Otter Damage Management | River Otter Resources | River Otter Acknowledgments | ICWDM | Wildlife Species Information, if (window.showTocToggle) { var tocShowText = "show"; var tocHideText = "hide"; showTocToggle(); }. Distribution. Two litters were reared with older siblings in the family group. Our organization is not affiliated with any other otter-related research group or community outreach organization. Vegetative cover and altitude do not appear to influence the river otter’s distribution as much as do good or adequate water quality, the availability of forage fish, and suitable denning sites. Breeding Biology Hollow logs, rock crevices, nutria houses, and abandoned beaver lodges and bank dens are used. Females are roughly one-third the size of males. Educational Activities You Can Do at Home, About the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, Your Go-to Guide for a Winter Day at the Zoo, Pouncing On Enrichment: Stories from Real-Life Zoo Gaurdians. Seasonally, they may travel distances of 50 to 60 miles (80 to 96 km) along streams or lake shores, and their home ranges may be as large as 60 square miles (155 km2). In response to this drop in population, regulations were put in place to reduce the amount being lost to … They don’t like human encroachment, and are uncommon nowadays. Scent marking is done by either urinating/defecating or by emitting a strong, musky odor from the paired scent glands near the base of the tail. “Everything runs to the rivers,” said Chris DePerno, co-author of the study and a professor in NC State’s Fisheries, Wildlife and Conservation Biology Program. Adult sea otters standard length is on average 4 ft. 3 in. Even when our gates are closed, we are still here, working as always to save species. MRC 5516 Female otters prepare dens that they keep scrupulously clean. The ♀ gave birth to nine litters, with 14.6.1 pups born, 6.4 (48%) of which survived to > 1 year old. “Everything on the landscape ends up in the water, and that is where otters live and eat. What is clear is that there is a delayed implantation of nine to 11 months, with actual gestation taking about 60 days. Provided it survives its first year of life, a typical North American river otter will live to the age of 12, with some surviving longer. Common name. They habitually use specific sites (toilets) for defecation. The otter's ears and nostrils close underwater. North American river otters are known for their playful swimming, but they are also an important species for helping scientists understand the health of river systems. As our little bundle of joy explores his habitat, help us celebrate his milestones with a gift today! An otter's tail is long and tapered, thickest where it joins the body and furred its entire length. A mature male otter weighs 10 to 25 pounds and is 30 to 40 inches in length, plus a 12- to 15-inch tail. A North American river otter's home range can be as large as 30 square miles (78 square kilometers), but a typical territory is 3 to 15 square miles (4.8 to 24 square kilometers). Range. See more ideas about otters, otter love, river otter. The teen’s mother, biology teacher Casina Ewert, ... One of the two domestic dogs that encountered the river otter was a puppy that had to be euthanized after the incident. Unlike sea otters, river otters are capable of covering great distances on land. River otters belong to the weasel family. Litters usually contain 2 to 4 kits, and the female alone cares for the young. However, the studies done in Kochi University revealed something different. Recent research, however, indicates that otters prefer slower moving, easier to catch fish, such as suckers and catfish found along river bottoms, and pose no threat to game fish. SEA OTTER BIOLOGY. That home range shrinks drastically during breeding and rearing season. River otters exhibit a variety of vocalizations, ranging from whistles and buzzes to twitters, staccato chuckles, chirps and growls. It is encouraging to note that with these conservation programs, regulations on trapping and the improvement of water quality, the river otters are finally making a comeback in certain wetland areas. maximum weight of 45 kg. An otter is muscular, streamlined and solidly built. River otters use their powerful hind feet to help with propulsion and their small, dexterous front feet for paddling through the water. The river otter's eyes and ears are located high on its head for surface swimming. males: 10 to 15 years; females: 15 to 20 years: Vocal behavior. California sea otter: Enhydra lutris nereis Alaskan sea otter: Enhydra lutris kenyoni Russian sea otter: Enhydra lutris lutris: Body size. Gestation lasts about 60 days, and the young, called kits, are born almost 1 year after conception. Like other carnivores, their teeth are well adapted for grinding and crushing. River otters have long, stiff and highly sensitive facial whiskers that aid in locating and capturing prey. Despite their name, they inhabit more than just rivers. Otters are found from Newfoundland to Vancouver Island and north to Yukon Territory. They have long, streamlined bodies, short legs, and a robust, tapered tail, all of which are well adapted to their mostly aquatic habitat. Females are slightly smaller, weighing 14-33 kg and measuring 1-1.4m in length. Society for Conservation Biology North American River Otter (Lontra canadensis): A Technical Conservation Assessment Prepared for the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region, Species Conservation Project September 2, 2006 Steve Boyle BIO-Logic Environmental 635 East Main Ste. 1; Bluett et al. Accumulation of mercury and selenium in the brain of river otters (Lontra canadensis) and wild mink (Mustela vison) from Nova Scotia, Canada. Life history and biology of otters Recognizing good otter habitat Interpreting sign and assessing otter damage Trapping methods for wildlife damage management Techniques for preparing pelts for personal use or sale Should you need further help, a Missouri Department of Conservation wildlife damage biologist can assist you on site with your nuisance otter problems. Their long, agile bodies enable them to quickly twist , turn, roll and dive, and they are frequently seen sliding or burrowing in the mud or snow. Pups grow rapidly and emerge from the den at about 2 months of age. State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry. Mammals and birds are rarely eaten. The male reproductive system contains a penis, testes, scrotum and more while the female reproductive system contains a vagina, ovaries, etc. River otters are found throughout most of North America from the Rio Grande to Canada and Alaska, except for in arid deserts and the treeless Arctic. Tools, commonly rocks, may be used by some individuals to break into hard-shelled prey, especially marine snails. Check the conservation status of the animals you hunt and use methods that don’t impact other animals. River otters leave scent marks on vegetation within their home range. Change style powered by CSL. River otter vocalizations and behaviors in New York were recorded using Bushnell Aggressor trail cameras that were placed in areas of moderate to high river otter activity. The river otter food chain includes many types of fish, mollusks, crustaceans, aquatic plants and roots, eggs, and some small mammals and birds. We are not announcing a reopening date at this time and will provide updates on our websites and social media. 1988. Once they implant, fetal growth lasts 60 to 65 days until the kits are born, usually in spring (March through May) in most areas. The river otter is protected and insulated by a thick, water-repellent coat of fur. With a streamlined body and webbed feet, this otter is a great swi… A nocturnal creature, an otter only left its den after dark to forage for food. North American river otters, also called Canadian otters, have long, muscular, streamlined bodies with short legs and fully webbed feet bearing non-retractable claws. River otters are also valued as a game species and furbearer (Melquist et al. In the southern portion of the range the dates of birth occur earlier, mostly in January and February, implying implantation in November and December. The normal anatomy section of the Inner Otter features expert descriptions and high quality images of normal sea otter anatomy. The otters typically capture prey in their mouths but occasionally use their thumbs and forepaws to grasp and manipulate prey. They remain as a family unit for seven to eight months or until the birth of a new litter. Because they are at the top of their food chain, they have few predators. Change style powered by CSL. It is the longest member of the weasel family, Mustelidae, a globally successful group of predators, reaching up to 1.7 metres (5.6 ft).Atypical of mustelids, the giant otter is a social species, with family groups typically supporting three to eight members. An adult North American river otter can weigh between 5.0 and 14 kg (11.0 and 30.9 lb). The tail comprises less than a third of the body length. It represents our guide to managing otter populations in Pennsylvania for the next 10 years. Adult river otters weigh 10 to 33 pounds (4.5 to 15 kilograms) and are about 2.5 to 5 feet (76 to 152 centimeters) in length. They spend much of their time feeding and at what appears to be group play, repeatedly sliding down steep banks of mud or snow. The diet of the river otter throughout its range is primarily fish. Organize or attend a stream, river, lake or other waterway cleanup in your area to preserve aquatic habitats for local species. Otter skeleton sketch based on 1947 illustration . The Giant River Otter only lives in three river systems: the Amazon, Orinoco and La Plata. An extremely adaptable animal, otters tolerate hot and cold climates, as well as high elevations and lowland coastal waters. While river otters tend to live alone or in pairs, they often socialize in groups and are known for their playful behavior. The oldest living river otter on record was 27 years old. With the tail's strong, undulating movement, a river otter propels itself through the water as fast as 8 miles (13 kilometers) per hour and can easily dive to 36 feet (11 meters) or more. Sea otter: Scientic name. Females are about 25 percent smaller than males. Lutra canadensis. Today, accidental trappings in beaver traps constitute the most otter fatalities. River otters eat mostly aquatic organisms, including fish, frogs, crayfish, turtles, insects and some small mammals. Because they have a low tolerance for polluted water, river otters are considered by some naturalists to be a good indicator, or "keystone," species of the quality of aquatic habitats. Otters prefer shores of deep, clear water in lakes, rivers, marshes and ocean bays. Their small heads widen to long necks and shoulders, and they have flattened, well-muscled tails. On the website of her small nonprofit River Otter Ecology Project, the reports of sightings pour in, from anglers and dog-walkers and nature lovers and amazed suburbanites: Hey, I just saw an otter! Their short but thick, soft fur is brown to almost black except on the chin, throat, cheeks, chest, and occasionally the belly, where it is usually lighter, varying from brown to almost beige. Journal. It is both the world’s largest otter and largest member of the mustelid family, reaching up to 6 feet (1.8 meters) in length. River otter were listed as endangered by the state of Illinois in 1989, with relict populations occurring in northwestern Illinois and extreme southern Illinois (Anderson 1995).The state recovery team, formed in 1993, developed a reintroduction program (Bluett et al. With the tail's strong, undulating movement, a river otter propels itself through the water as fast as 8 miles (13 kilometers) pe… The North American river otter is the most abundant otter species, but surprisingly little is known about its life in the wild. The reproductive biology of river otters, as in other Mustelids, is unusual in that they exhibit delayed implantation. The otters are thriving—the water is relatively clean, the populations of fish are good. Protect local waterways by using fewer pesticides when caring for your garden or lawn. The otters typically capture prey in their mouths but occasionally use their thumbs and forepaws to grasp and manipulate prey. Water Consumption Animal Average Amount (Liters per day) Canada Goose0.24 Cat0.15 Mink0.10 Opossum0.30 Bald Eagle0.16 A river otter drinks liters in three days. River otters are most common in North America, and they are different from their sea otter cousins that are found in Monterey Bay. Click on an organ system below to see examples of everything from normal heart and lungs to lymphnodes and much more! North American River Otter (Lontra … Although river otters weren’t seen and no tracks were found due to the terrain of the area, the evidence is solid. Otter Spotters help the River Otter Ecology Project keep track of the lively creatures, whose population was decimated by trappers and pollution. By 1977, the river otter was included as an Appendix II species under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) - not necessarily for the river otter’s sake, but more so for that of similar species with endangered status, whom officials feared would be inadvertently targeted by the fur trade in a case of mistaken identity. Estrus can last anywhere from 20-56 days. Society for Conservation Biology North American River Otter (Lontra canadensis): A Technical Conservation Assessment Prepared for the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region, Species Conservation Project September 2, 2006 Steve Boyle BIO-Logic Environmental 635 East Main Ste. Smithsonian’s National Zoo & Conservation Biology Institute 3001 Connecticut Ave., NW Washington, DC 20008, PO Box 37012 Otter fur is a rich, dark brown and is lighter on the … Otter births occur most frequently in March or April. In other words, while some may be squeamish over the notion of trapping river otters for their hides, this activity, in a structured and regulated sense, helps to foster and reap the most robust data set for river otter population insight available. River otters stay in family groups during the summer and early fall. The fertilized eggs float around in the uterus for about 9 months before implantation occurs, rather than implanting on the uterine wall shortly after fertilization. 216pp. (1.29m) for males and 3 ft. 8 in. River otters occur throughout North America except the arctic slopes, the arid portions of the Southwest, and the intensive agricultural and industrialized areas of the Midwestern United States (Fig. River Otter. The Basics. Otter are carnivores, feeding on fish, crayfish, frogs, insects, small mammals, mollusks, and blue crabs. When threatened or frightened, they emit a hair-raising scream that can be heard up to 1.5 miles (2.4 kilometers) across the water. That is why they are an excellent species to investigate pathogens and diseases.” Adults were river otters ≥ 2 years old and subadults were river otters < 2 years old. As recently as the mid-1980s, more than 30,000 pelts were harvested annually. Adult otter can be over 50 inches long and weigh up to 25 lbs. Average life expectancy. Kristin Moore, a UNM undergrad, and Jerry Dragoo, a research assistant professor in UNM’s biology department, performed a DNA analysis to confirm or refute the field identification. and are the smallest marine mammal in North America. They will also frequent unused or abandoned human structures or shelters. They usually remain together as a family group though the fall and into the winter months. Sea otters feed on benthic invertebrates and typically dive to the bottom to forage, although they may also pull prey off emergent rocks, kelp stipes or kelp canopy. Otters are large weasel-like animals that have long bodies, small ears, a broad snout, short legs with webbed feet, and a long hair-covered tail that is wide at the body and narrows toward the tip. Some studies indicate that river otters pair for only a few months during the breeding season and have no further strong bonds. 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