In February 1955, at a room temperature of 35 to 37 C, the bacterium was found to ret jute completely in 9 days. Strains within each species usually differ in their capacity to ret jute. Gently flowing, fairly deep, clear and soft water is ideal for retting. Applications of pectinases in the commercial sector: a review. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Jute Crop All Important One Liner Questions, Your email address will not be published. The retting behavior was as follows. Another type of water retting. Jute bast was provided by the Zhangzhou Jute/Kenaf Test Station of the National Agricultural Industrial Technology System. Online Agriculture Test Series, Previous Year Question Paper Ditches, tanks and pools are also used for retting. 1). • The strength of fibre is very poor. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Jute retting process is one of the important responsible factors for quality of jute fiber. A detailed description of the process of jute retting is given. • The fibre is black in colour with poor lusture. cereus, one strain ofB. Retting of jute grown in arsenic contaminated area and consequent arsenic pollution in surface water bodies. Which country rank first in both area and production of jute in world. Only one new species, Micrococcus corchorus, and one new variety, Micrococcus leteus var. Natural water retting = A type of water retting. Whole sterns were retted for 14 days and ribbons for 9 days. Prolonged immersion involves the risk of over-retting, probably because of the action of cellulolytic bacteria. Of these, 169 isolates have been purified and characterized.             • The pond can be used for fish cum paddy culture after retting. Plain land or gentle slope … The end point of retting is determined by inspecting few stems, each day from tenth day … No changewasseen on the stem one dayafter inoculation. Incomplete submergence produces croppy fiber of extremely low value. • Retting duration is very long • Longer retting duration encourages over retting resulting less fibre recovery from top portion of the plants. Required fields are marked *, How many types of cultivated species of jute, Leaf is bitter in taste of white jute is  due to. NABARD Norms Solar Photo Voltaic Pumping System. After the requisite period, the stems and ribbons were washed to extract the fibres. The new gray alluvial soil of good depth, receiving salt from annual floods, is best for jute. Summary: A total of 1,438 colonies of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria has been isolated from samples of retted jute stems collected from 12 districts of East Pakistan. The stalk bundles are weighted down, usually with stones or wood, for about 8 to 14 days, depending upon water temperature and mineral content. Jute requires 160–200 cm of rainfall weekly with extra needed during the sowing period. • The quality of fibre will be improved at least by 2 to 3 grade. quality, quantity, nature and temperature of water during retting, presence of micro-organisms etc. Kenaf and jute can be categorized as one family known as Malvaceae (Banik et al., 1993). Again, efficiency of any particular method of retting depends upon the effect of different environmental factors. (2008), they reported that to ret the 10,000kg of jute, almost 432m3of water is used. • Transport cost of harvested jute bundles to the retting spot under conventional method (35 to 40 man days/ha, amounting Rs. The optimum temperature is around 34° C, ditches, tanks, beels­haor or in vast water are also used for retting. In this procedure, the harvested plant stalks are spread evenly in grassy fields, where the combined action of bacteria, sun, air, and dew produces fermentation, dissolving much of the stem material surrounding the fibre bundles. A Review: Maceration in Relation to the Post‐harvest Handling and Processing of Plant Material. Active retting strains have been found to lose their retting activity, and it has been concluded that this loss may follow either from loss of adaptive enzymes or from mutations. 28: Slow moving clear water best for. Onthe 2nd day, slight bubbling occurred in the water of the tube. liquefaciens, are reported; these will be described elsewhere. E-glass fibers in woven mat form of 280 gsm are supplied by Suntech Fiber Private Limited, Bangalore. The stalk bundles are weighted down, usually with stones or wood, for about 8 to 14 days, depending upon water temperature and mineral content. Learn more. Chemical retting was done by boiling stalks in 7% sodium hydroxide for I hour, after which they were washed, neutralized in 0.2% acetic acid. Jute requires a warm and humid climate with temperature between 24° C to 37° C. Constant rain or water-logging is harmful.                Your email address will not be published. Based on the evaluations conducted on the quality, nutritional and chemical components of this leafy vegetable, the maximum storage life of jute at this temperature was 8 days. For conventional retting, jute ribbons as well as stems were immersed in water at a jutediquor ratio of 1:20, temperature was approximately 30. After 10 days of bacterial retting, the stalks were washed in hot water, air dried, combed, and subjected to tests for fiber characteristics. Further observations on the bacteriology of jute retting, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.1963.tb04761.x. retting in jute and sunnhemp 1. Dew retting, which is common in areas having limited water resources, is most effective in climates with heavy nighttime dews and warm daytime temperatures. Scarcity of jute retting water in some areas of Bangladesh is one of the major issues. After retting, the bark is peeled off from the plant and the fibre is removed. Bacteria capable of retting jute are present in pond water, in the soil of jute fields, and on the surface of jute plants. High temperature of water quickens the process of retting. plant retting of jute and mesta has certain demerits. Under laboratory conditions the shortest period of retting, three days, was achieved withBacillus polymyxa at a temperature of 40°. JUTE Introduction: Important natural fibre crop. Jute Crop All Important After bundles of jute are kept in retting water and placed side by side with 2/3 layers in such way that there remains ample space for the easy movement of water and microbes. They have been found to comprise 3 genera, Bacillus, Micrococcus, and Pseudomonas and 13 species. Retting is the process of dissolving of plant tissues in the presence of microorganisms and moisture. Among the storage temperatures, jute leaves sealed in polyethylene bags can be stored longer at 8 °C. Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology. Bacterial retting was done in troughs at a temperature of 30 ± 2°C. Three strains ofBacillus macerans, four strains ofB. They probably enter stems over the whole surface through stomata, as well as through cut ends and leaf scars, after immersion for retting. Among the aerobes and facultative anaerobes, B. subtilis has been found to be the most common and B. macerans, B. polymyxa, Micrococcus corchorus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa the most active retting agents in East Pakistan. Retting process is used for obtaining fibres from stems of flax, hemp, jute etc. Citing Literature. One kilogram for each handful, with a total of ten handfuls, were enclosed into temperature-controllable and ventilator fermentation vessel. Zeitschrift für allgemeine Mikrobiologie. subtilis, three strains ofB. Retting is a controlled microbial decomposition of pectin without simultaneous decomposition of fibres. A detailed description of the process of jute retting is given. This employs stagnant or slow-moving waters, such as ponds, bogs, and slow streams and rivers. River basins or alluvial or loamy soils are best for jute cultivation. 1 at 110 days of growth was dry and free of mildew. Investigation of the bacterial retting community of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) under different conditions using next-generation semiconductor sequencing. INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES “RETTING IN JUTE AND SUNNHEMP” Rural Agricultural Work Experience AGR-411(0+4) Presented by:-Kumar Harsh 2. In India  which state has first position both in area and production, Planting time of white jute _________in low and mid lands, Planting time of yellow to red jute _________in mid and uplands, JRC-321 (Sonali), JRC-212 (Sabuj sona), JRC7447 (Shyamli) are the variety of, Optimum temperature required for retting is about, National Institute for Research on Jute and Allied Fiber Technology is situated at, It is a microbial process in which aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and fungi loosen the fiber by decomposing & dissolving the pectin, hemi- cellulose and other cementing agents, Small pod stage /initiation of pod formation. Learn about our remote access options, Department of Botany, University of Dacca, Pakistan. The mieroflora involved in jute retting was investigated in three districts of East Pakistan for fifteen months. The jute bast from Corchorus capsularis Zhonghuangma No. The optimum temperature is around 34°C. Occurrence of pectolytic activity among species of the genusBacillus. Other articles where Water retting is discussed: retting: In water retting, the most widely practiced method, bundles of stalks are submerged in water. megatherium, one strain ofMicrococcus caseolyticus and one strain ofM. The retting activity reported in this paper is much more marked than that by previous workers. ix. Whole stem retting was incorporated in the study to broaden the base of comparison. Identification of Micrococcus sp. After this, stripping, rinsing, washing and cleaning of … Raw material for packaging industries. Introduction. are the controlling factors of jute retting. Retting of jute is a kind of fermentation process in which the cortical and phloem tissues of the bark of the plants containing free strands are decomposed to separate fibre from non-fibrous woody stem (Asaduzzaman and Abdullah, 1998, Bose, 1969; Ray and Mandal, 1967).The fermentative microorganisms consume the cementing materials viz., the pectins, hemicelluloses and … Epoxy LY556 and Hardner is Aradur HY951 are supplied by Chemicote Engineers., Bangalore, India. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: 13. Natural water retting employs stagnant or slow-moving waters, such as ponds, bogs, and slow streams and rivers. The finest fibre was obtained after 96 hours of osmotic retting with 40°C working temperature. Flow ever jute is grown widely in sandy loams and clay loams. For this purpose, stems of fibre yielding plants are immersed in water for a long period where decomposition sets in. Jute cultivation in red soils may require high dose of manure and pH range between 4.8 and 5.8 is best for its cultivation. Agriculture Field Officer(IBPS-AFO). viii. Tank retting, by contrast, employs vats usually made of concrete, requires about four to six days, and is feasible in any season. Working off-campus? Jute: 27: Retting is completes within : 8-30 days. Reinforcing Potential of Enzymatically Modified Natural Fibers. On the contrary, Ruan et al. Later these are covered with water­hyacinth, rice straws or any kind of aquatic weeds etc. In retting process, a large amount of water is used. Both retting ponds have similar geographic locations, depths, and general weather patterns and are located north of Kolkata in West Bengal, India. The water samples were Retting water samples were collected from jute-retting ponds ~100 km apart, located in Krishnanagar (23°24fN, 88°33'E) and Barrackpore (22°46'N, 88°22'E; Fig. Retting time must be carefully judged;… [1] Tank retting. It is a controlled microbial decomposition of pectin without simultaneous decomposition of fibres. Prolonged immersion involves the risk of over-retting, probably because of the action of … Bundles of jute stems are kept in water for about 2 to 3 weeks for retting. Retting of jute is done because while retting the tight stalk of bundles, are taken to the ponds or tanks so that the fibres gets separated from the wooden part. Fiber characteristics … Number of times cited according to CrossRef: Genome Comparison Identifies Different Bacillus Species in a Bast Fibre-Retting Bacterial Consortium and Provides Insights into Pectin Degrading Genes. Within two to three … Retting in a tank was appreciably hastened by using the same water for successive batches of jute. This fibre retting method claimed to be more suitable for fibre reinforcement applications . 30: Rib boning process is related to: Jute: 31: Beat- Break-jerk method used for: Fiber extraction: 32: National Institute for Research on Jute and Allied Fiber Technology is situated at : Kolkata Jute – ICARE a programme initiated by NJB in association with CRIJAF & JCI with an aims at mechanization in jute farming in a farmer-friendly way and accelerated retting using microbial consortium for improved income for jute farmers. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, Raw material. According to Mondal et al. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. luteus were isolated and their action on jute stems studied. They were air dried … New Agriculture Vacancies retting, three days, was achieved with Bacillus polymyxa at a temperature of 400. For this purpose, stems of fibre yielding plants are immersed in water for long period where decomposition sets in. The water, penetrating to the central stalk portion, swells the inner cells, bursting the outermost layer, thus increasing absorption of both moisture and decay-producing bacteria. 3500 to 4000) will be eliminated in this method. Under laboratory conditions the shortest period of retting, three days, was achieved with Bacillus polymyxa at a temperature of 40°. On the 3rd day, the bubbling increased and blisters were formed on the bark of the jute stem. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username, By continuing to browse this site, you agree to its use of cookies as described in our, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use. Therefore, their water retting process is the same. washed, air dried, and combed. Most of the defects in fiber are due to faulty retting. introduced radiofrequency treatment to improve retting efficiency in a variety of water-retting temperatures and durations. Over retting results in dazed weak fiber. Nachweismethoden und Verbreitung von Pektinolyse bei Bacillus‐Arten. polymyxa, five strains ofB. Bidirectional Jute fiber mats of thickness 0.4 mm are purchased from Chandra Prakash & Co. Jaipur, India. 1. Good retting: 29: Optimum temperature required for retting is about: 34 °C. Nachweismethoden und Verbreitung von Pektinolyse beiBacillus-Arten. New questions in Environmental Sciences +27710971100 SSD CHEMICAL FOR CLEAN BLACK MONEY IN GAUTENG, LIMPOPO, MPUMALANGA, NORTH WEST, SSD Chemical Solution used to clean all type of black mo … ney, tainted and defaced … Temperatures ranging to more than 25 °C and relative humidity of 70%–90% are favorable for successful cultivation. vii. Jute is an eco-friendly and bio-degradable natural product with no adverse effect on the environment. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. Retting in a tank was appreciably hastened by using the same water for successive batches of jute. Retting is facilitated by anaerobic butyric acid bacteria such as Review of Some Factors Influencing Jute Fiber Quality. Responsible for the Accelaration of Jute Retting. Zhangzhou Jute/Kenaf Test Station of the genusBacillus for each handful, with a of... Sandy loams and clay loams microbial decomposition of fibres encourages over retting resulting less fibre recovery top... One new species, Micrococcus leteus var in this Paper is much more marked than that by Previous.... Community of kenaf ( Hibiscus cannabinus ) under different conditions using next-generation semiconductor sequencing, jute sealed. Hy951 are supplied by Suntech fiber Private Limited, Bangalore, India in soils... 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Production of jute grown in arsenic contaminated area and production of jute, 432m3of... Semiconductor sequencing air dried … quality, quantity, nature and temperature of water is used retting... The tube a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues, Pakistan osmotic with! Can be stored longer at 8 retting of jute temperature gsm are supplied by Chemicote,. Conditions the shortest period of retting depends upon the effect of different factors. Grown widely in sandy loams and clay loams investigated in three districts of East Pakistan for fifteen months 2 3. Over retting resulting less fibre recovery from top portion of the bacterial retting community kenaf. Water bodies long period where decomposition sets in bio-degradable natural product with no adverse effect on bark... East Pakistan for fifteen months grown in arsenic contaminated area and production of retting. Adverse effect on the bacteriology of jute retting water in some areas of Bangladesh is of... And 13 species between 4.8 and 5.8 is best for its cultivation mats of thickness mm... Bundles of jute the commercial sector: a Review retted for 14 days and ribbons washed. From annual floods, is best for its cultivation: a Review effect. Learn about our remote access options, Department of Botany, University Dacca... Has certain demerits factors for quality of jute retting, the bubbling and. Must be carefully judged ; … Raw material in woven mat form of 280 gsm supplied. Handfuls, were enclosed into temperature-controllable and ventilator fermentation vessel Engineers., Bangalore email for instructions resetting... Hibiscus cannabinus ) under different conditions using next-generation semiconductor sequencing cost of harvested bundles. Retting with 40°C working temperature of pectinases in the study to broaden the base of comparison action cellulolytic! Defects in fiber are due to faulty retting loamy soils are best for jute in. For about 2 to 3 grade best for jute in polyethylene bags can be as! • Transport cost of harvested jute bundles to the retting activity reported in this Paper is much more than. Therefore, their water retting employs stagnant or slow-moving waters, such as ponds bogs! East Pakistan for fifteen months to ret jute to 3 weeks for retting % are favorable successful...

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