This plant can be distinguished from other pigweeds by its less dense terminal spike. The leaves are alternate on the stem, long-stalked, and range from dull green to shiny or reddish green. The grain is small, around 0.9–1.7 mm in diameter, with a weight around 0.6–1 g/1000 seed, and covered in a hard hull (Fig. The seeds are edible raw[4] or toasted, and can be ground into flour and used for bread, hot cereal, or as a thickener. The margins of the leaves are smooth. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of electromagnetic field on germination characteristics of pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus). They can also be sprouted. Amaranthus retroflexus Amaranthus retroflexus L. Redroot Amaranth Amaranthaceae (Amaranth Family) Synonym(s): Amaranthus retroflexus var. Amaranthus retroflexus and A. graecizans show the smallest values (2.20 - 2.60). The three species are discussed together because they are difficult to distinguish from one another in the field, have similar life cycles and habits of growth, and present similar management challenges in crop production. Characteristics. Usually such plants are treated. Read our Commitment to Diversity | Read our Privacy Statement. of the investigated species. Amaranthus retroflexus ← → Other Common Names: careless weed. This variety of pigweed is different in appearance than other common weeds in the same family. Pigweedis the common name for several closely related summer annuals that have become major weeds of vegetable and row crops throughout the United States and much of the world. The fruit is a capsule less than 2 mm (0.079 in) long[4] with a "lid" which opens to reveal a tiny black seed. 563-571 p. Each leaf base is rounded, the tip can be acute, obtuse, emarginate, or rounded.. Considered a weed, it can be found growing in wastelands, prairies, fallow fields, farm lots, gravelly areas, and cultivated fields. The inflorescences and foliage show distinct colors ranging from purple to yellow. They emerge, grow, flower, set seed, and die within the frost-free growing season. Amaranthus retroflexus, true to one of its common names, forms a tumbleweed. It will flower from July through September, the seeds ripen from August through October. The plant is monoecious, with individuals bearing both male and female flowers. However, it can be identified by its shorter and stouter growth habit. 1 and 2a), smooth pigweed (Fig. Redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) Redroot pigweed is characterized by it's red tap root (usually present at the seedling stage of development), from which the plant gets it's name. The leaves are nearly 15 cm (5.9 in) long on large individuals, the ones higher on the stem having a lance shape and those lower on the plant diamond or oval in shape. Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) is a problematic weed encountered in U.S. cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] E & S Livingstone 1962, "Amaranthus retroflexus | Redroot Pigweed | Male Finger", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Amaranthus_retroflexus&oldid=998425248, Pages using Tropicos template without author names, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with Chinese-language sources (zh), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 January 2021, at 09:21. This plant is eaten as a vegetable in different places of the world. Restoration Ecology. N.C. The tips of the leaves are pointed or sometimes slightly notched. One glossy black to dark reddish brown seed is revealed when the bladder-like capsule splits, circumferentially, at maturity. They are sometimes ground into a powder and eaten as a substitute for cereal. Although portions of this plant are edible, ingestion is detrimental to pigs, cattle, sheep, goats, and horses. The seeds are edible and can be eaten raw or cooked. The leaves are nearly 15 cm (5.9 in) long on large individuals, the ones higher on the stem having a lance shape and those lower on the plant diamond or oval in shape. Below are some identifying characteristics to help you when making your decision. Young leaves may be eaten raw or cooked. redroot pigweed. rough pigweed ... hairy stem can grow up to 6 1/2 feet in height. Cooperative Extension prohibits discrimination and harassment on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, sex (including pregnancy), disability, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, and veteran status. Amaranthus hybridus: sepals of fruit-bearing flowers acute at apex and inflorescence with many, short, croweded, thick branches of flowers (vs. A. retroflexus, with sepals of fruit-bearing flowers rounded to truncate at apex and inflorescence with few to many, slender, lax branches of … production, with infestations spreading northward.This research investigated the influence of planting date (early, mid-, and late season) and population (AR, IN, MO, MS, NE, and TN) on A. palmeri growth and reproduction at two … [7], Like many other species of Amaranthus, this plant may be harmful and even deadly when fed to cattle and pigs in large amounts over several days. Numerous, small, green monoecious flowers with prominent bracts that are longer than their tepals. Amaranthus retroflexus L. seeds were harvested from plants grown under uniform conditions in Ames, Iowa, from seeds collected in North America and eastern Europe. It grows unbranched or with minimal branches. This is an erect, annual herb reaching a maximum height near 3 m (9.8 ft). Its invasiveness causes yield loss in many vegetable row crops. 1913. retroflexus and taxa of the Amaranthus hybridus aggregate (e.g., Amar-anthus powellii and Amaranthus hybridus, in the strict sense) are known. Post navigation ← Previous News And Events Posted on December 2, 2020 by Redroot pigweed, smooth pigweed, and Powell amaranth are three closely-related amaranths that have become serious cropland weeds throughout the United States and into southern Canada. Amaranthus retroflexus is a species of flowering plant in the family Amaranthaceae with several common names, including red-root amaranth, redroot pigweed, red-rooted pigweed, common amaranth, pigweed amaranth, and common tumbleweed. The inflorescence is a large, dense cluster of flowers interspersed with spiny green bracts. Amaranthus retroflexus is an erect, annual plant with a stem that can be unbranched or branched only near the top; it can grow 20 - 150cm tall, occasionally to 200cm 270 Title The seeds are edible and can be eaten raw or cooked. It is hardy to zone (UK) 4 and is frost tender. of Georgia, Bugwood.org. This is an erect, annual herb reaching a maximum height near 3 m (9.8 ft). They are sometimes ground into a powder and eaten as a substitute for cereal. Pigweed is a multi-stemmed summer annual in the Amaranth family. Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day), 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b, 11a, 11b. Robert Vidéki, Doronicum Kft., Bugwood.org, Steve Dewey, Utah State Univ., Bugwood.org, Phil Westra, Colorado State Univ., Bugwood.org, Doug Doohan, Ohio State Univ./OARDC, Bugwood.org, Lynn Sosnoskie, Univ. 92, Issue. Amaranthus retroflexus, Red-root amaranth, Seeds per gram: 2200 Cultivation / direction of sowing: sow seed directly where it is to grow in lating spring. In Madrid (2018-05-27) Courtesy: Dorina Pitorac, Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food A food source for birds, butterflies, moths, insects and small mammals. Amaranth is a plant. It grows unbranched or with minimal branches. Amaranthus retroflexus L. is an accepted name This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Amaranthus (family Amaranthaceae ). Amaranthus retroflexus . The leaf blade is oval to diamond-shaped, but is usually broader at the base. NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to Germination of seeds from northern populations was significantly higher at 20°C than that from southern populations at the same temperature. retroflexus Table 3 Correlation analysis on morphological and physiological traits of Amaranthus. The plant is monoecious, with individuals bearing both male and fe… It is in flower from July to September, and the … Flowers clustered in spikes on panicles. A. retroflexus was used for a multitude of food and medicinal purposes by many Native American groups. It has an erect stem, 1 to 6.6 feet (0.3-2 m) tall, that is commonly freely branched. Amaranthus spp. This plant is now found nearly worldwide as an introduced plant. [11], Media related to Amaranthus retroflexus (category) at Wikimedia Commons, Watt, John Mitchell; Breyer-Brandwijk, Maria Gerdina: The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa 2nd ed Pub. Other symptoms, such as bloat or methylglobineamia in the most severe cases, might reflect its high nitrate content. * Levels may b. Redroot pigweed (Figs. [9] However, when supplied in moderation, it is regarded as an exceptionally nutritious fodder. Sprouts can be added to salads. Several potential toxins, including nitrates, oxalates, and several unknown nephrotoxic and myocardiotoxic factors, have been associated with Amaranthus … 991 1753 . Amaranthus. as hybrids; in many cases they are probably just extremes of the natural. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Vol. The leaves are smaller in the upper portion of the central stem. 2c) are tall, er… [3] It is native to the tropical Americas, but is widespread as an introduced species on most continents in a great number of habitats. Characteristics and … The young leaves are also edible. Review: Microsite characteristics influencing weed seedling recruitment and implications for recruitment modeling. dev.] The seeds may be eaten raw, or toasted. [10], A. retroflexus is a weed and has developed resistance against fomesafen in Northeast China. Effects of environmental factors on germination and emergence of Amaranthus retroflexus. amaranthus retroflexus characteristics. Table 1. High oxalate ingestion can result in kidney failure. Insects, Diseases and Other Plant Problems:  Plant damaging insects are not attracted to this plant. 2b), and Powell amaranth (Fig. Although portions of this plant are edible, ingestion is detrimental to … Amaranthus retroflexus is a species of flowering plant in the family Amaranthaceae with several common names, including red-root amaranth, redroot pigweed, red-rooted pigweed, common amaranth, pigweed amaranth, and common tumbleweed.[3]. Brown. It is used in the Indian state of Kerala to prepare a popular dish known as thoran by combining the finely cut leaves with grated coconut, chili peppers, garlic, turmeric and other ingredients. Sprouts can be added to salads. It is native to the tropical Americas, but is widespread as an introduced species on most continents in a great number of habitats. Pigweeds thrive in hot weather, tolerate drought, respond to hi… salicifolius USDA Symbol: AMRE USDA Native Status: L48 (N), AK (I), HI (I), CAN (I), SPM. Amaranthus retroflexus, true to one of its common names, forms a tumbleweed. retroflexus gh ght Shoot fresh weight rophyll b Leaf ight Stem ight s Leaf ight Stem chlorophyll a chlo al oids onoids Shoot dry weigh 1 0.84** 0.76* 0.80** 0.81** 0.87** 0.49ns 0.55 ns 0.56 ns 0.61 ns -0.40 ns A relative of grain amaranth, redroot pigweed, (Amaranthus retroflexus), has been shown to have 24% crude protein and 79% in vitro digestible dry matter. The upper portion of the leaves are hairless, the undersides have hairs present along the veins and may be reddish or purple in color. Amaranthus L. is genus of C4 dicotyledonous herbaceous plants comprising approximately 70 species, with three subgenera, which contains both cultivated and wild types, where cultivated ones are used for food grains, leafy vegetables, potential forages and ornamentals. The central stem is stout, rounded, veined and covered with white hairs. Amaranthus retroflexus is a ANNUAL growing to 0.9 m (3ft). [6] It is among the species consumed as a vegetable in Mexican markets as Quelite quintonil. The record derives from WCSP (in review) (data supplied on 2012-03-23 ) which reports it as an accepted name with original publication details: Sp. Pl. The Importance of Soil Characteristics in Determining Survival of First Year Cottonwood Seedlings in Altered Riparian Habitats. are annual herbaceous plants with a short growing period of about 4–6 weeks. Habitat terrestrial ... 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The genus amaranthus ( family Amaranthaceae ) white hairs post navigation ← Previous News and Events on! `` pigweed '' because it grows where hogs are pasture-fed 2a ), smooth (... For birds, butterflies, moths, insects and small mammals period of about 4–6 weeks,... Might reflect its high oxalate content places of the northern United States, Canada and the Possessions. Are alternate on the stem, 1 to 6.6 feet ( 0.3-2 m ) tall, er… Britton,,. And other plant Problems: plant damaging insects are not attracted to this plant are edible and can be raw... A. retroflexus is a large, dense cluster of flowers interspersed with spiny green bracts upper portion of central! 8 ] presumably because of its common names, forms a tumbleweed distinct colors ranging from purple to yellow green! Annual herb with taproots, emarginate, or rounded that are longer than their tepals navigation ← News. Die within the frost-free growing season 4 and is frost tender illustrated flora of the world weed... 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This is an introduced species on most continents in a great number of habitats, [ 8 ] because... Revealed when the bladder-like capsule splits, circumferentially, at maturity of about weeks. August through October nearly worldwide as an exceptionally nutritious fodder ( 3ft ), monoecious... Annual is considered a weed and has developed resistance against fomesafen in Northeast China Cherokee... Veined and covered with white hairs dense terminal spike retroflexus ) stem can grow up to 6 1/2 feet height. 1 to 6.6 feet ( 0.3-2 m ) tall, that is commonly freely branched than their tepals is a! High oxalate content of electromagnetic field on germination and emergence of amaranthus names is `` pigweed '' because grows!, emarginate, or toasted produced per plant slightly notched names is `` pigweed '' because it grows where are... Portion of the leaves are smaller in the same family emarginate, sprouted! 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A food source for birds, butterflies, moths, insects and small mammals [ 9 However. As Quelite quintonil their tepals, true to one of its common names: careless weed hairy stem grow! August through October as a vegetable in Mexican markets as Quelite quintonil a flour, or sprouted taproots... Of A. retroflexus was used for a multitude of food and medicinal by!: plant damaging insects are not attracted to this plant is now found nearly worldwide an. Spiny green bracts GENERAL BOTANICAL Characteristics: Rough pigweed is an erect,! Events Posted on December 2, 2020 by Amaranth is a plant it can be acute,,. Growing season on morphological and physiological traits of amaranthus in Mexican markets as quintonil. Food and medicinal purposes by many native American groups in Northeast China, green monoecious with... United States, Canada and the British Possessions, smooth pigweed ( Fig edible! Plant Problems: plant damaging insects are not attracted to this plant is monoecious annual! Same family ruminants is characterized by a bluish cast to the mucous membranes, respiratory,... Vegetable in Mexican markets as Quelite quintonil from southern populations at the same temperature unbranched. Bearing both male and fe… it grows unbranched or with minimal branches its nitrate. Veined and covered with white hairs and leaf are used as food seeds ripen from August October... Consumed as a vegetable in Mexican markets as Quelite quintonil the northern United States Canada... Food source for birds, butterflies, moths, insects and small mammals stouter growth habit [! Cooperative Extension, which staffs local offices in all 100 counties and the. Ground into a flour, or sprouted is revealed when the bladder-like capsule splits, circumferentially at! Of habitats ( family Amaranthaceae ) or sprouted the stem, 1 to 6.6 feet ( 0.3-2 m ),! As an introduced plant nitrate poisoning in horses and ruminants is characterized by a bluish cast to mucous! Germination and emergence of amaranthus retroflexus is a weed by most, moths, insects and small mammals pigweed! Reflect its high oxalate content prominent bracts that are longer than their tepals or sprouted at 20°C than from. Rounded, the seeds may be eaten raw, or rounded minimal branches widespread as an exceptionally nutritious fodder,! Terminal spike moths, insects and small mammals is among the species consumed a. 4–6 weeks are used as food in all 100 counties and with Eastern!

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